Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Introduction Alzheimers disease (AD) is an advanced neuro-deteriorating illness that is responsible for over two-thirds of all the instances of dementia. The most significant hazard aspect of Alzheimers disease is aging as well as a genotype known as APOE4. A report released in 2007 by the Alzheimers Association approximated that over 5 million citizens in U.S.A are presently diagnosed with this disease whereas unanimity research in Delphi predicted a worldwide dominance of AD would augment to an aggregate of more than 80 million cases by 2040. (Gold et al., 2008). Whilst this illness is regularly overwhelming to the affected individual as well as the family, the unusual occurrence of AD articulates that its a burden both financially as well as to the society. Undeniably, AD exemplified the third greatest expensive health disorder in the year 2000 in America and is of rising fiscal significance for health strategy organization in other commercial and evolving states. Maybe because of increasing proof concerning the seriousness of the condition, an increase of study attention in AD done in the previous decade, with 50% additional papers printed regarding the subject in 2007 than 1997. During this period, one chief part of the study of AD has been fixated on the mental deficiencies displayed by patients. Alzheimers disease and memory. (Which types of memoryÃ¢â¬ such as episodic, procedural, etc.Ã¢â¬ are most affected by this disease? Alzheimers disease affects the various brain sections in different levels although it majorly affects the long-term memory which is comprised of the episodic as well as the semantic memory. The condition initially starts with the short-term memory, e.g. preserving recently learned short-term information. It then proceeds to the episodic memory where it affects an individuals recall of first-person events. Afterward, it goes to the semantic recollection where it affects an individuals recall of word definition and world facts. The disease finally affects the procedural memory whereby they are impaired concerning cognitive and practical abilities. (Mastin, 2010) With the progression of the condition, the brain sections that were initially integral become dysfunctional and finally, all cognitive, concentration, and language capabilities are disordered. Patients of AD have a habit of showing information loss of particular features of the semantic section of the brains. Earlier, they cann ot differentiate logical classifications like animal species although after a period, this absence of differentiation spreads to extensive more overall classifications. What is the progression of AD? AD progresses in stages are dependent on the type of region of memory that has been initially affected; the development continues until the patient has been influenced a significant portion of their brains. Early stage This terminology denotes to persons of every age that have an insignificant deficiency because of signs of Alzheimers disease. Regular symptoms comprise poor memory, communication hitches, and variations in attitude and conduct. Individuals in this phase maintain most of their handy abilities and call for nominal support. (Sperling et al. 2011) They might have an understanding of their altering aptitudes, and, thus, be able to notify other individuals of their know-how of existing with the illness and aid to design and supervise their prospective care. Middle stage This phrase conveys a more substantial degeneration in the individuals mental and practical aptitudes. Retention, as well as other intellectual capabilities, shall remain to deteriorate even though persons at this period might possess a bit of understanding of their disorder. Aid with various everyday responsibilities, for instance, shopping, homemaking, wearing, cleaning and going to the toilet will ultimately come to be essential. (Sperling et al. 2011) Employing aggregating requirement to offer care, everybody involved will require assistance and care. Late stage This stage of Alzheimers illness might likewise be titled severe or radical phase. Herein this phase, the individual finally converts to be incapable of verbal communication or taking care of their selves thus necessitating the need for full day care. The objective of this provision at this phase is to maintain the attention of the individual to guarantee the paramount value of life probable. What are current recommendations for how to maintain functioning prior to and after diagnosis?) Drug interventions Medically and inexpensive medications for Alzheimers disease are existing; the stress is to develop or preserve utility after neuronal impairment instead of changing the concealed pathogenesis resulting in the condition. Two categories of medicines are presently commended for Alzheimers illness: Galantamine, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors donepezil, and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor, Rivastigmine, and competitors such as Memantine. (George et al. 2003) Presently, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are the solitary suggested alternatives to cope with minor to moderate Alzheimers disease and there lacks substantiation that one is more effective than the other; although, a vast randomized measured experiment has freshly revealed that constant management with Donepezil is related with mental remunerations in modest to a severe AD. Memantine has been sanctioned for persons that have modest to severe Alzheimers disease; it has as well been utilized in minor Alzheimers illness however the proof is presently lacking notwithstanding its recurrent off-label usage. Non-medication methods The ground of proof is continually rising for interventions that dont involve drugs in the management of Alzheimers illness even though additional study in various fields are still required. In a vast methodical assessment appraising medication as well as non-drug intercessions in care for AD, mental stimulation treatment was established to be as medically and expense efficient as the inhibitors; recollection treatment is likewise endorsed in state guidelines. (George et al. 2003) Conversely, the proving grounds for pioneering service delivery for example situation managing, whereby a case supervisor, commonly a nurse or community employee represents the chief care manager amongst crucial patrons, comprising main and ancillary maintenance, is variegated. While the substantiation grounds for cost efficiency of this method is minimal, particularly advanced aided technology to assist individuals with AD is accessible and may be significant in releasing caregiver nervousness and supporti ng persons with AD to continue to be home-based. Patients need to be informed of their condition. In conducting the disease analysis, people require to put the patient himself into consideration. In overall discourse, patients that are in the initial phases are necessary to be aware of nature as well as the projection of their conditions after the prediction is determined by the doctor. Doctors should not permit their distress or the imprudent demand from family members to undermine their morality in patient interaction and rapport. Besides, it is crucial to make sure that the patient is able to understand at the maximum level. (George et al. 2003). Revelation might as well help in encouraging the patient to consent assistance and in handling social requirements. It also facilitates the patients driving to be sorted out. Per the advancement of innovative drug cures, revelation permits patients to permission to partake in medical experiments. Presently many studies are dependent on the family member to provide delegated permissions; this has been argued to be lawfully improper. Hence, situations exist in which it might be misguided to inform a patient that they have the illness in the initial visits. For instance, in the case that the patient lacks a support structure, it is probable that the revelation might weaken their resolve to live. In similar circumstances, it might be crucial to help the patient to create assistance connections and pertinent facilities and consequently, understandingly reveal the analysis. Discoursing the future A significant field to be debated in the previous phases of Alzheimers illness when the patients still possess mental capability is to grant their desires for prospective provision as well as the individuals delegated to formulate decisions when the patients conditions will have been adverse. In AD, these considerations labeled advance maintenance organization have demonstrated to decrease unsuitable hospital admittances nearing death although the grounds of proof have not been adequate. (George et al. 2003) Debates regarding advance maintenance organization need openness and understanding because experts and doctors are experienced to conduct these discussions after creating rapport with the patient. Subsequently, patients can officially record their requirements in numerous ways, counting the accomplishment of an advance instruction, or living will. In conclusion, Alzheimers illness is a disease that has increased continuously in its prevalence over the years. It is a dementia disorder that has majorly affected the aged individuals. It is prudent to be able to provide adequate support and care to these patients as well as understand their conditions. This will hold them to better deal with their condition as well as be able to put across their needs and requirements before their demise. Also, patients should be made aware of their conditions before it advances. This will be able to give them a better insight into managing their condition. Additional research is required regarding the disease to make their treatment and management more efficient.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
It was a small suburban town called plumpton with your average church, corner store, schools, and etc. . There is one thing that is out of the ordinary was just up the street from the town was a old run down house with a old rigidity playground with a swing that made a little creek sound every time the cold wind blew on it. It also had a slide and a sandbox but there have rumors about seeing foot prints in the sandbox a small foot from a child no older then eight years old. There also have been rumors about a little girl walking around looking no more then seven years old but she is barley seen so some people think that the little girl is waiting for her family to return. Then one day a couple the wife name Samantha and the husband namedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦And about a week later Jorge had installed video cameras and a alarm system. A month has gone by with out a sign of any paranormal, it was Trace birthday and she was turning 2 years old already she was walking she like p laying in her playground she like going up and down the slide. And like playing in her sandbox there she played there for about 30 min talking to her imaginary her friend like to be called Sara. So when Trace birthday has started she had ask her mom to let Sara have a piece of cake Samantha said Ã¢â¬Å"baby we cant waste cake like that so trace just let it go and said ok and gave Sara her piece of cake, but her mom didnÃ¢â¬â¢t let her so she got the piece of cake and gave it back to Trace, but Trace got mad and through the cake and then she ran into her room. The party ended and then Samantha felt bad and went to go say sorry to Trace but the door was lock so she started getting worried so she called out to Trace and said baby come out no response so she called Jorge to unlock the door and when he opened the door there nothing insight except a piece of paper say bye mommy and daddy, but they both new that Trace did not know how to right so they bot h check the tapes to see she mig ht have gone and when they saw the tape they both where in shock. They saw that got though the window but she was not alone there was another little girl there helping her but it was a very faint image of the girl soShow MoreRelatedDr. Jekyll s Death Or Disappearance Essay1218 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHyde, he might understand a reason for his friend s relationship with the man. From that point forward, Utterson begins to haunt the streets around the mysterious door, looking for Mr. Hyde to either enter or exit the portal. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Violence on TV Most people in our society generally have the opinion that violence on television increases aggression in children and adolescents. Does it ? Who is to say whether television has a positively direct effect or a positive correlation ? However, the majority of the people who have researched this topic have discovered that violence on television is indeed one of the prime factors contributing to the increase in violent and aggressive behavior among the youth in society. That is to say there has been a growth of strong evidence to suggest that television violence does play an important and contributory part in the learning of aggression. In other words, violence in the media helps promote and encourage children andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦For example, one of the most well know studies of modeling aggressive behavior and to determine if children imitate violent acts observed on television is an experiment done by Albert Bandura, Dorothea Ross and Sheila A. Ross. To test t heir hypothesis, the subjects were divided into three experimental groups and one control group. One group observed real-life aggression, the second group observed the same models but on film and the third group watched an aggressive cartoon. The groups were also subdivided into male and female subjects so that half the subjects were exposed to the same sex models, while the other half viewed model of the opposite sex. After the subjects were exposed to aggression, they were tested for the amount of imitation and non-imitation aggression. As a result, the boys were significantly more aggressive than the girls. Gender was also positively correlated with imitative aggression and the subjects tended to imitate the same sex models more than the opposite sex. In addition, Bandura, Ross and Ross had predicted that the subjects who saw aggressive behavior being displayed would consequently be more aggressive when frustrated than the subjects who were as frustrated but had not been exp osed to prior aggression. The experiment confirmed their prediction. One of the finding of the experiment was that the sex of the child and the sex of the model providesShow MoreRelated violence on tv Essay855 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Violence on TV nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Violence is described in WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s dictionary as physical force exerted for the purpose of violating, damaging, or abusing. Violence on TV has been steadily increasing for the past few years. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not very often that you will find a TV show in prime time that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t involve some type of violence. According to Hollywood sex and violence sells. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: How to Self Development through Team Work Social? Answer: Introduction I have understood that the teamwork is an important process in the organization. It is defined as the process of effective collaboration with certain groups of people so that a goal can be achieved (Hill Bartol 2016). It is considered as the phenomenon in which the employees cooperate within each other so that the individual skills are used for constructive feedback. I think that teamwork and social interaction is common in all organizations. The modern day organizations are striving to become competent in the global market (Galegher, Kraut Egido, 2014). This job cannot be done alone and it requires the interaction of several competent teams. When I was in my college life, I did not realize this and thought that if an individual performs well in an organization, then also the organization can perform well. However, I realized the importance of team work only when I joined my first organization. This self-reflection module would discuss the different theories related team work, soci al interaction and self-development through these activities. My personal, organizational learning along with the theories would be discussed, which would also determine how this information would be useful in future. Discussion I have always wondered how the team work would help me to learn new skills, concepts and knowledge. In the initial period of my organizational experience, I was afraid of interacting with people as it made me feel nervous. I have always thought that knowledge can be gathered by only reading and exposing myself to audiovisual modes. However, I realized that I was not right in my thinking and social interaction has major interaction on the self-development of an individual. Team work increases collaboration among people, which ultimately increases the productivity of the employees (Melo et al., 2013). It is an effective approach that for completing work in an effective manner and it increases the performance of the team members. During my initial days of career, I was involved in a series of meetings and group presentation to the clients. I was there with a team of four members, who belonged to different cultural background and I found it difficult to manage the cultural diversity of the team. In the initial levels, my team mates faced challenges of cultural differences and there were no communication or cooperation within the team. I have learnt about conflict management in my course and I found that conflict is integral to the functioning of any team. Conflict is considered as healthy or unhealthy depending upon its nature. The healthy conflict comprised of the different issues in perspectives, values or the ways of doing a task (Harper, 2015). Our gr oup faced healthcare conflict in this stage. However, there is also the existence of the unhealthy conflict, which is characterized by unnecessary competition over power, resources or rewards. There can be personal grudges or grapevine, which are considered as unhealthy sources of conflict (Adkins, 2017). In my group, there were ineffective communication owing to the diverse group members. I always took active part in reducing the level of conflicts in my team. I did this by choosing a common language English and giving a script of the presentation to all the group members so that they can refer to it instantly. I have learnt that it is not sufficient to have bookish knowledge and it is important to have practical experience. I have read many books on conflict management, however, I learnt the practical aspects of managing conflicts when I started working in a team. As opined by Natvig and Stark (2016), the Tuckman as well as Jensen model of the group development focuses on the fact that the development of a group goes through five distinct stages such as forming, storming, performing, norming and adjourning. In the initial stage of the client presentations, the team members were apprehensive about the level of comfort and there was a lack of communication as the members were not comfortable with each other. I took an active part and ensured that the team has clear goals, objectives and mission so that the team outputs are not compromised. I also engaged in improving the interpersonal communications within the team. On the this stage, I saw that there was some discomfort as well as confusion. This stage was followed by the storming stage, which is synonymous with social icebreaker (Levi, 2015). In this stage, we engaged in greater interaction with each other and shared some aspects of personal life too, so that there is a development of the effe ctive interpersonal relationships. This helped me to develop a sense of connection between the team members, in which there were greater sense of empathy. I considered that the first task of developing one of the robust team charter was to know each other in a better way and then form a way of accomplishing particular tasks. We shared small talks in which our goals and interests were discussed. However, one of the characteristics of the forming stage was project requirements and then individual roles. I defined the roles of my team members, but they did not agree with me initially. However, after mutual agreements, I was able to convince them about the important roles. These were the basic elements of the storming stage. The norming stage is synonymous with a cohesive team in which the conflict is reduced and there is an increase in the team confidence (Li, Kirkman Porter 2014). I have developed ground roles in the team and I was also successful in making good social relations which have enhanced my group identity. I realized that if I perform well alone, then there is no use as my team productivity would be the same. Hence, I instilled the sense of team bonding and my team became strong. The team proceeded towards the performing stage in which the team was successful in giving a brilliant presentation to the client and they praised about the teamwork that we showcased. This was possible only due to the collaborative effort that is displayed by my team. My team enjoyed the social creativity and the process that helped them to achieve the task objective. I was promoted to manager level after the previous accomplishment of the presentation as the client was extremely satisfied with our approach. I tried to bring greater cohesiveness in my team and I never acted as a dictator. I believed that the performance of my team would be helpful in fulfilling my organizational objectives. I was apprehensive about channelizing the way of tapping the potential of my team. I learnt that the tasks would be delegated to the team members based on their competency and skills. According to Lehmann-Willenbrock, Beck Kauffeld (2016), Belbins team roles specify the nine different behaviors possessed by individuals in the work place. I have read about Belbins team roles and have decided to implement the same in my team. I have learned that a few members in my team are resource investigators as they like to explore different opportunities. I decided to put them in the marketing departments, in which they can successfully find new market segments for expansi on. There were some members in my team who were coordinator, as they had the skills of identification of talent and clarification of the goals. I found them to be suitable for carrying out the human resource activities and they were able to recruit the best manpower. I feel that it is the job of a manager to bring together the team members and delegate tasks that would enhance their productivity. I gained the essential skills of the delegation during my group work in the initial days of my career. I was happy that I could effectively use it in my present job role. When I was performing my duties as manager, I found that there were some members of my team, who were unable to give the desired level of productivity. This was the reason of underperformance of my team as a whole. I found that a few members in my team were very demotivated, which was reflected in their work performance. Drnyei Ushioda (2013) says that motivation is the direction of the behaviour of a person which is influenced by external stimuli. My team members complained that there was no salary increment for last two years and this prevented them from concentrating on their work. There were instances when they were unable to complete the allocated tasks to them. I was very confused about the right tactics of making them understand since this is a similar situation and I have also gone through similar situations. I realized that even if I have suffered from the same thing, it is my duty to give adequate amount of motivation to my team. I let them understand that I would personal ly take the matter to senior management as well as senior HR managers. I tried to convince them about the different financial as well as non-financial benefits that I would propose to the senior management. I said that I would ensure that they get both these benefits. This assured them that their hard works would be recognized by the management and this increased their motivation levels. The motivation level of the team is important so that everyone gives their optimum output and the team can achieve the organizational goals (Huang Hew, 2016). I have learnt that communication is vital for the success of the team and hence promoted clear channels of communication (Broadbent, 2013). I motivated the team members in a way that they engaged in communicating the vital information to their fellow team mates. This helped the team members to stay up to date and perform in a collaborative manner. Conclusion I gained very important teachings from this reflective learning exercise which would help me in the future professional development. I engaged in group presentations, where there is a lot of team work needed. I learnt that there are initial conflicts in the team as the team members are not aware of each others backgrounds. I also learnt that it is possible to promote good interpersonal relationships by breaking the ice or brainstorming sessions. I have learnt that it is important for proper delegation of work, which would help me in the accomplishment of goals in my future life. I have also learnt the fact motivation keeps a team going and is instrumental in achieving the desired level of outputs. This would help in my future career by enhancing the motivation level of myself and my team. References Adkins, K. (2017). Failure to Communicate: Gossip as Institutional Conflict. InGossip, Epistemology, and Power(pp. 77-106). Springer International Publishing. Broadbent, D. E. (2013).Perception and communication. Elsevier. Drnyei, Z., Ushioda, E. (2013).Teaching and researching: Motivation. Routledge. Galegher, J., Kraut, R. E., Egido, C. (2014).Intellectual teamwork: Social and technological foundations of cooperative work. Psychology Press. Harper, C. (2015).Organizations: Structures, processes and outcomes. Routledge. Hill, N. S., Bartol, K. M. (2016). Empowering leadership and effective collaboration in geographically dispersed teams.Personnel Psychology,69(1), 159-198. Huang, B., Hew, K. F. T. (2016). Measuring learners motivation level in massive open online courses.International Journal of Information and Education technology. Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., Beck, S. J., Kauffeld, S. (2016). Emergent team roles in organizational meetings: identifying communication patterns via cluster analysis.Communication Studies,67(1), 37-57. Levi, D., 2015.Group dynamics for teams. Sage Publications. Li, N., Kirkman, B. L., Porter, C. O. (2014). Toward a model of work team altruism.Academy of Management Review,39(4), 541-565. Melo, C. D. O., Cruzes, D. S., Kon, F., Conradi, R. (2013). Interpretative case studies on agile team productivity and management.Information and Software Technology,55(2), 412-427. Natvig, D., Stark, N. L. (2016). A Project Team Analysis Using Tuckman's Model of Small-Group Development.Journal of Nursing Education,55(12), 675-681
Thursday, April 16, 2020
Multicultural competence in student affairs is an exclusive resource that guides professionals in the field of student affairs so that they are able to develop a model that incorporates all multicultural subjects. However, multiculturalism is a wide field therefore; gathering for all these issues is a challenging task to the education professionals.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Methodologies and multicultural research in multicultural sensitivity specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Programs and policies have been developed to address issues of multiculturalism. Issues of race, class, religion, gender, age and abilities have been given priority. It is an obligation of student affairs professionals to address multicultural issues in institutions of higher education. Student affairs professionals have been in the forefront of the quest to create more welcoming and affirming campus environments and have always a ddressed issues of alienation and hostility in the campuses (Pope, Reynolds Mueller, 2004). Most higher education institutions have neglected the need to address the issue of lesbianism and bisexual students. Diverse array of student clubs and organizations have been initiated to address multicultural issues in most universities. However, they have not achieved the objective of addressing the issue of lesbianism. Lesbians, gay and bisexual people are always discriminated and harassed especially in the learning institutions. This oppresses them in every aspect of their life. It is therefore the responsibility of student affairs professionals to set up policies which help them to live their aspired life. This issue has never been given a preference by most institutions, yet it poses an overwhelming danger on the operation of learning institutions. Programs and policies have to be set up which addresses this issue in totality. One of the projects that can be employed to curb the pande mic posed by lesbianism and bisexualism is the use of programs for sexual minority students. The program helps in recognizing the sexual minority students in institutions of higher education. Initialization of such programs helps in the organization of educational workshops, sensitivity counseling and provision of accurate information to lesbian students (Henning-Stout, James Macintosh, 2000). The use of support groups is also a remedy to the glitch. Support groups help in the improvement of self esteem and the provision of assertion to students affected by stigmatization. Support groups have counselors who are experienced in dealing with social issues. They can decide to provide counseling service to students having issues of sexual orientation or refer them to outside agencies if need arises. Sexual minority as a multicultural issue can also be addressed by formulation of policies that help in protecting the sexual minority group. Examples of such policies include the no name pol icy and no discrimination policy (Henning-Stout, James Macintosh, 2000).Advertising Looking for case study on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To enhance the effectiveness of such policies, offices should be initiated where the accounts of discrimination and pestering can be handled. These offices will also help in the provision of support services and information to minority sex groups. Staff training should also be conducted in the institution so that it will increase their awareness on how handle cases of multiculturalism among staff. An umbrella commission should also be formed to furnish advices to all other bodies addressing issues of sexual minority. The function of the commission is to monitor all other activities pertaining lesbianism. They can also help in proposing ideas and projects that strengthens educational programs relating to lesbian and bisexuals issues. In addition to this, the commission will he lp in providing advices to the board of the institution on the recommended legislation influencing the sexual minority groups. References Henning-Stout, M., James, S. Macintosh, S. (2000). Reducing Harassment of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth in schools: School Psychology Review 2000, Vol.29, No.2, pp.180-191. Pope, R., Reynolds, A., Mueller, J. (2004). Multicultural competence in student affairs (pp. 98-162). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Print. This case study on Methodologies and multicultural research in multicultural sensitivity was written and submitted by user Finnegan Gallegos to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 13, 2020
History of the Production Processes In the entire history of human life, man has been engaged in a lot of activities to produce the goods and services that are necessary to sustain his life. During the Stone Age period, man used simple tools made from rock to hunt and prepare food.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on History of the Production Processes specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With time, his brain capacity increased and so did his needs and desires. To meet his ever-increasing needs, man had to boost his production process and improve on efficiency. This ensured that the goods that have been produced are of the right quality and quantity in order to meet the requirements of the consumers. Since the invention steam engine, a lot of advancement has been seen in the automobile industry, especially in car manufacturing. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, there were only few expertised individuals in the car manufacturing industry. However , with time, more individuals became familiar with the process and hence more cars were produced. To sustain the increased demand and competition, manufacturers had to build better cars with the latest designs, increased safety and high performance. As result, companies such as General Motors, Ford, Toyota and Mercedes Benz came up. Up to the present date, it is the dream of many individuals to own a motor vehicle. However, the production and use of motor vehicles has various effects on the environment. Some of these effects include the emission of greenhouse gasses and noise pollution (Ekins, 2000). The furniture and fitting industry is also another production avenue that has developed steadily over time. Furniture has developed from being basic home requirement to a product of prestige. As a result, the design, quality and quantity of furniture has become more sophisticated. In addition, the demand of furniture has also increased. From our basic knowledge, we know that the most co mmon material required to produce furniture is wood. Thus, to meet the increased demand for the product, more trees have to be cut down. This has led to the depletion of forests. The overall outcome of this process is the change in weather patterns that we are currently experiencing (Ekins, 2000).Advertising Looking for essay on environmental studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consumption Behaviours The consumption behaviours of the goods and services that have been produced have also been changing with time. Some of these consumption behaviours have a significant effect on the environment. The use of bottled water for instance has led to the development of massive waste disposal problems. During its early days, bottled water was believed to be much safer as compared to tap water. This led to the increase in the consumption of bottled water by the world population. However, it was soon discovered that the conce pt of bottled water was just a marketing strategy and that there was little difference in terms of quality between bottled water and tap water. However, due to consumer preferences, a high proportion of the population still consumes the product. This has led to the development of a massive solid waste disposal problem due to the inefficiency of recycling the plastic cans that are used to pack the commodity. The domestic use of energy is also another issue of concern that plays a vital role on the sustainability of the environment. There are high rates of inefficient of energy such as electricity and coal. Leaving lights on when nobody is in the room or running the air conditioning system on good weather are some of unnecessary use of energy. This leads to unnecessary consumption of energy. Global Sustenance To meet the ever-increasing demand of goods and services of the global population and to ensure environmental sustainability, wise use of resources is necessary. This entails usi ng resources in a manner that will meet the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations. This can only be achieved through effective and efficient use of resources to avoid waste, minimizing of costs and meeting consumer needs. Reference Ekins, P. (2000). Economic growth and environmental sustainability: the prospects forÃ green growth. London, Routledge
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Literature, Intertextuality - Essay Example These results not only in what Roland Barthes calls as the "Death of the Author", but also makes the issue of authorship debatable. According to Barthes, the text [is] woven entirely with citations, references, echoes, cultural languages . . . which cut across it through and through in a vast stereophony. . . The citations which go to make up a text are anonymous, untraceable, and yet already read 1(Barthes 194-5) If intertextuality is a problematization of the inside-outside ratio of the text and context game, a classic example would be John Barth's Dunyazadiad. The text not only explicitly refers to the original work of The 1001 Nights, which is historically seen as an act of unoriginality, of plagiarism, but manages to create something original out of the reference. In the story, when Scheherazade and the genie (John Barth) are discussing the ending of the story the reader is currently reading, her epiphany illustrates one of the central ideas behind Barth's reworking: "Sherry asked with a smile whether by 'his version' the Genie meant that copy of the Nights from which he'd been assisting us or the story he himself was in the midst of inventing." The fact that Barth consciously subverts the original reference and recasts Dunyazade, the younger sister of the doomed Queen Scheherazade, the original protagonist of the Arabic tale, as the main stay of his text, shows Barth not only toying with the idea of form (as represented by the canon of Queen Scheherazade), but also illustrates the idea of post modern fiction to venture into the realms of 'might have been's' rather than following the filiated history. The greatest triumph of Barth lies in breaking this discourse of filiation, of canonization, by producing a pastiche of the probable. The intertextuality in the text thus, capillarizes the power lying inherently with the omniscient author of The 1001 Nights. If intertextuality celebrates the concept of art imitating art, it is true that Barth's text is a pluralistic discourse. However, the question of whether the text owes more to other texts than itself becomes difficult to analyze simply because the meta-narratives which evolve from Dunyazadiad are themselves a part of the world of intertextuality. The recursive tale structure is a treasure-house of narratives, but is at the same time confounding as it is held in the semiotics of language whose meaning can neither be ascertained nor be fully comprehended. Thus, "I can't conclude it," the narrator admits at the end of "Dunyazadiad," "but it must end in the night that all good mornings come to." The function of intertextuality in Alejo Carpentier's Like the Night has a function which is similar and at the same time dissimilar to Barth's Dunyazadiad. Whereas the similarity is evident in both the text's ability to challenge and break the canon of filiality, the difference becomes one in degree. Alejo's text, one could argue is a conscious effort to defer the issue of authorship at such an ad infinitum pace that its elasticity could combine the aesthetic concerns of multi-cultural traditions and focus on broader social issues regarding cultural identity. A typical example would be the use